Iveta Liniņa, Rosita Zvirgzdiņa

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Last modified: 05.06.2017


The primary goal of retail operations similar to any other business is to make a profit by satisfying consumer needs. To achieve the goal and ensure competitiveness retail enterprises need to carry out their operations as efficiently as possible by applying the latest, most modern work organisation methods. Work efficiency can be achieved by reducing supply chain costs which in turn can be achieved through successful cooperation among all the parties involved.  Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) is not just a new approach to process organisation in retail trade but affects all business processes as a whole taking them to a totally new and much higher level, thereby ensuring an increase in customer satisfaction and loyalty levels. The aim of the present research is to review the latest scientific literature on ECR, understand its working principles and carry out a survey of experts in order to ascertain the level of application of ECR in retail enterprises in the Baltic States and put forward recommendations for the enhancement of application of ECR.



customer satisfaction; loyalty; relationship management; retail trade


[1] Anderson, J. L., Jolly, L. D., Fairhurst, A. E. (2007). Customer relationship management in retailing: a content analysis of retail trade journals. Journal of Retailing and Consumers services, November, 14(6).

[2] Best, R. (2005). Market based management. 4th ed., Prentice Hall.

[3] Butcher, S., Stephan, A. (2002). Customer Clubs on Loyalty Programmes. Abingdon, Oxsn, GBR: Gower Publishing Limited.

[4] Butsonera, A., Martini, P., Zavattini, G., Santona, A. (2014). Psychometric properties of an Italian version of the experiences in chose relationships – revised (ECR-R) scale. Psychological Reports, ISSN: 0033-2941, Jun, vol. 114 issue 3, pp. 785–81.

[5] Dyer, J. H., Harbir, S. (1998). The Relational View: Cooperative Strategy and Sources of interorganizational Competitive Advantage. Academy of management Review, 23 (4),
pp. 660–679.

[6] Doyle, P., Stern, P. (2006). Marketing management and strategy, 4th ed. Prentice Hall,
pp. 401–432.

[7] ECR Baltic (b.g.). Retrieved 08.08.2015 from http://www.ecr-baltic.org/en/about-ecr/efektiva-pateretaju-vajadzibu-novertesana-ecr/

[8] ECR Europe (b.g.). Retrieved 05.07.2016 from http://www.ecrnet.org/01-about/01-about1-2.html.

[9] Evans, M. (2012). Consumer Behaviour. Hoboken, NJ, Willy.

[10] Harker, M. J. (1999). Relationship Marketing defined. MCB University Press, Bradford,
pp. 13–20.

[11] Hofstetter, J. (2006). Accessing the contribution to ECR. ECR journal, vol. 6 issue 1, pp. 20–29.

[12] Kotler, P., Keller, K. L. (2006). Marketing management. 12th ed., Prentice Hall, pp. 196–197.

[13] Kurt Salmon Associates (1993), Efficient Consumer Response — Enhancing Consumer Value in the Grocery Industry. Washington, DC: Food Marketing Institute.

[14] Putniņš, T.J. & Sauka A., (2015). Ēnu ekonomikas indekss Baltijas valstīs 2009 – 2014. Rīga: SSE Riga Ilgtspējīga biznesa centrs, 47 lpp.

[15] Reisheld, F. (2003). The One Number You Need to grow. Harvard Business Review, December.

[16] Salmon, K. (1993). Efficient Consumer Response- Enhancing Consumer Value in the Grocery industry. Washington DC, Food Marketing Institute.

[17] Seifert, D. (2001). Efficient Consumer Response. Hampp, Mering.

[18] Smith, P. R., Zook, Z. (2011). Marketing Communication. 5th ed. Kogan Page, PA, pp.

[19] Teece, D. J., Gary, P., Amy, S. (1997). Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), pp. 509–533.

[20] Toedt, M. (2015). The contribution of customer relationship management to sales performance in the hotel business. Summary of Doctoral Thesis, University of Latvia, Riga.

ERDF co-funded project "Funding of international projects in research and innovation at Rezekne Academy of Technologies" No.