Oleksii Marushchak, Oksana Nekrasova, Mihails Pupins, Volodymyr Tytar, Andris Ceirans

Last modified: 29.04.2019


Creation and expansion of the Emerald Network (EN) objects is one of the most promising directions of the nature conservation development in Ukraine according to European standards. The aim of EN objects designing is to assess the state of conservation of habitats and flora/fauna species’ populations on a pan-European level. It is assumed that the EN should cover at least 60% of the populations of species and the area of habitats mentioned in Resolutions (4 and 6) of the Berne Convention (1979). Later on, the EN will be integrated into Natura 2000 system. The other countries’ experience is of great importance in creating such territories. Since 2004 Latvia have joined this network and included 333 sites (12% of its territory). In Ukraine, such network is only being developed. Four Ukrainian biogeographical regions are inhabited by 6 amphibian and 5 reptile species for which according to Emerald Biogeographical Seminar ALP (Carpathians) - CON - PAN, 11-13 May 2016, Chisinau, Moldova, the EN in not sufficient, being indicated as IN MOD (moderately developed) in 90% of cases. A total of 63 suggestions of new EN (1628256,4 ha) objects aiming on herpetofauna conservation among others were designed during 2018-2019 and now are waiting to become candidate sites and later on – a part of Ukrainian EN. Most of these sites represent valuable territories of wild nature in the rivers’ floodplains. For Latvia and Ukraine conservation of marginal populations of the following species is important: crested newt Triturus cristatus (Laurenti, 1768), fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1761), pond turtle Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758). In the work the importance and the ways in which the EN can act for the above mentioned species’ conservation are highlighted, taking into account experience of European Union, future trends in the influence of anthropogenic factors, invasive species and climate change.


Emerald Network; amphibians; reptiles; conservation


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[2]. O. Yu. Marushchak, O. V. Vasyliuk, O. S. Oskyrko, “Perspective object of Emerald Network in Ukraine: Khorol river valley”, presented at XIII International Scientific Conference for students and PhD “Youth and progress of biology,” Lviv, Ukraine, 2017.  (In Ukrainian).

[3]. K. V. Polyanska, Borysenko K. A., Pawlaczyk P., Vasyliuk O. V., Marushchak O. Yu., Shyriaieva D. V., Kuzemko A. A., Oskyrko O. S., O. D. Nekrasova et al., Involvement of the public and scientists in the designing of the Emerald Network in Ukraine. Kyiv, 2017. (In Ukrainian).

[4].  S. M. Drobenkov, Population ecology of European pond turtle in Belarus. Belaruskaia Nauka, 2012, pp. 1-106. (In Russian).

[5].  N. Smirnov, “On distribution of the Emys orbicularis in Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions of Ukraine,” presented at III International Conference – Workshop “Research and conservation of european herpetofauna and its environment: Bombina bombina, Emys orbicularis, and Coronella austriaca”, Daugavpils, Latvia, 2015.

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[7].  O. Nekrasova, V. Tytar, M. Pupins., “Bioclimatic limitations to the geographical distribution of Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Testudines: Emydidae) in the North of the range,” presented at the XV Portuguese-Spanish Herpetology Congress and XIX Spanish Congress of Herpetology “Biology and Conservation of Herps in the Anthropocene”, Salamanca, Spain, 2018.

[8].  O. Nekrasova, V. Tytar, V. Kuibida, O. Marushchak, O. Oskyrko, “A GIS-modeling approach to the investigation of rare amphibians and reptiles in Ukraine under climate change,” presented at the 4th International Symposium on EuroAsian Biodiversity, Kyiv, Ukraine, 2018.

[9].  A. Pupina, M. Pupins, O. Nekrasova, V. Tytar, I. Kozynenko, O. Marushchak, “Species distribution modelling: Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1761) and its important invasive threat Perccottus glenii (Dybowski, 1877) in Latvia under global climate change,” Journal of Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, vol. 74, No. 4, pp. 79–86, 2018. DOI 10.5755/j01.erem.74.4.21093V.

[10].  R. J. Hijmans, S. E. Cameron, J. L. Parra, P. G. Jones and A. Jarvis, “Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 25(15), pp. 1965–1978, 2005.

[11].  Tytar, O. Nekrasova, A. Pupina, M. Pupins, O. Oskyrko, “Long-term bioclimatic modelling the distribution of the fire-bellied toad, Bombina bombina (Anura, Bombinatoridae), under the influence of global climate change,” Vestnik Zoologii, vol. 52(4), pp. 341–348, 2018.

[12].  K. Fog, H. Drews, F. Bibielriehter, N. Damm and L. Briggs, “Managing Bombina bombina in the Baltic region. Best practice guidelines. Amphi consult,” Stiftung Naturshutz Schleswig-Holsten, Odense, 2011, pp. 1–112.

[13].  M. Pupins, A. Pupina, “Projects on Emys orbicularis (Reptilia: Testudines: Emydidae) in Latvia for thirty years (1984 – 2014): biological aspects, results and effect on population and ecosystems,” Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis, vol.14 (2), pp. 159–175, 2014.

[14].  M. Pupins, A. Pupina, “Project LIFE-HerpetoLatvia: first results on conservation of Emys orbicularis in Latvia,” Herpetological Facts, vol. 1, pp. 85–96, 2014.

[15].  A. Pupina, M. Pupins, “Project LIFE-HerpetoLatvia: first results on conservation of Bombina bombina in Latvia,” Herpetological Facts, vol. 1, pp. 76–84, 2014.

[16].  A. C. M. Meeske, M. Pupins, K. Rybczynski, “First results on the distribution and condition of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) at the northern edge of its distribution in Lithuania and Latvia”, Zeitshrift fur Feldherpetoloģie, vol. 13 (1), pp. 71–99, 2006. (In German).

[17].  S. L. Kuzmin, A. Pupina, M. Pupins, G. Trakimas, “Northern border of the distribution of the red-bellied toad Bombina bombina,” Zeitshrift fur Feldherpetologie, vol. 15 (2), pp. 215–228, 2008.

[18].  M. Pupins, A. Pupina, “The data on the observations of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis L.) at the northern edge of its area in Latvia,” Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis, vol. 8 (1), pp. 35–46, 2008.

[19].  A. Pupina, M. Pupins, “The new data on distribution, biotopes and situation of populations of Bombina bombina in the south-east part of Latvia,” Acta Biologica Universitatis Daugavpiliensis, vol. 8 (1), pp. 67–73, 2008.

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