Eva Lapkovska, Inga Dāboliņa

Last modified: 10.04.2019


Due to new circumstances of living, climate and environmental changes, varieties of human body shapes are growing. Therefore, obtaining uniformly clothes for special issues in the group of people with similar interests (dancing groups, choirs, etc.) are getting more and more complex. Besides the self-estimation and perception about the shape and size of the person varies due to different sizing from brand to brand. To dress-up the group of people with different sizes in uniformly way is not an easy task for the supplier – even if the model chosen for the gown is casual, most of the producers doesn’t apply a large scale of sizes. Frequently sizing systems do not fit to the needs of the end-users. Size marked on the clothing describes only some information about body size, if any. Therefore, part of clothing supplied is not suitable for end-user groups, but if already purchased it is decided to discard them. Such a set of circumstances, in contrast to global progress towards sustainable development, which is also based on environmental responsibility, can serve as a contributing factor to further growth in clothing consumption. The main purpose of this study is to make an insight into sizing approaches for a special group of people focusing on the best practice of human body 3D scanning. The paper outlines a certain target group’s understanding of the clothing size correspondence to their individual body characteristics. Advantages of human body scanning for analysing of body characteristics and solving sizing issues are discussed. Within the study, anthropometric data sets of 50 women group were obtained using a 3D scanner to develop the distribution of this special group into size groups and analyse individual body measurements that are significant for the design of appropriate garment patterns. Conclusions made in this paper acknowledge 3D scanning as an advantageous method for anthropometric data obtaining which are determinate for garment design and sizing system development.


made to measure; non-contact measurements; sustainable garment producing


[1]     Ellen MacArthur Foundation, A new textiles economy: Redesigning fashion’s future, (2017, [Accessed: Feb. 11, 2019].

[2]     European Commission. Sustainable development. Available: [Accessed: Feb. 18, 2019].

[3]     R. Nayak and R. Padhye, Eds.,  Garment Manufacturing Technology. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing Ltd, 2015, 498 p.

[4]     D. Gupta and N. Zakaria, Eds., Anthropometry, apparel sizing and design. Cambridge, UK:  Woodhead Publishing Ltd, 2014, 344 p.

[5]     Standard. EN 13402-1: 2002 Size designation of clothes - Part 1: Terms, definitions and body measurement procedure.

[6]     Standard. EN 13402-2:2002 Size designation of clothes - Part 2: Primary and secondary dimensions.

[7]     Standard. EN 13402-3:2017 Size designation of clothes - Part 3: Size labelling based on body measurements and intervals.

[8]     Standard. ISO 8559-1:2017 Size designation of clothes - Part 1: Anthropometric definitions for body measurement.

[9]     Standard. ISO 8559-2:2017 Size designation of clothes - Part 2: Primary and secondary dimension indicators.

[10]   Standard. ISO 8559-3:2018 Size designation of clothes - Part 3: Methodology for the creation of body measurement tables and intervals.

[11]   Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge University Press 2019. Available: [Accessed: Feb. 27, 2019].

[12]   Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 2019. Available: [Accessed: Feb. 27, 2019].

[13]   Standard. ISO 7250-1:2017 Basic human body measurements for technological design -- Part 1: Body measurement definitions and landmarks.

[14]   Standard. ISO 20685-1:2018 3-D scanning methodologies for internationally compatible anthropometric databases. Part 1: Evaluation protocol for body dimensions extracted from 3-D body scans.

[15]   Standard. ISO 20685-2:2015 Ergonomics - 3-D scanning methodologies for internationally compatible anthropometric databases. Part 2: Evaluation protocol of surface shape and repeatability of relative landmark positions.

[16]   C. J. Parker, S. Gill, S. G. Hayes, "3D Body Scanning has Suitable Reliability: An Anthropometric Investigation for Garment Construction", in Proc. of 3DBODY.TECH 2017 - 8th Int. Conf. and Exh. on 3D Body Scanning and Processing Technologies, Montreal QC, Canada, 11-12 Oct. 2017, pp. 298-305.

[17]   C. Fairhurst, Ed., Advances in Apparel Production. Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing Ltd, 2008, 328 p.

[18]   Standard. ISO 18825-1:2016 Clothing - Digital fittings. Part 1: Vocabulary and terminology used for the virtual human body.

[19]   Standard. 18825-2:2016 Clothing - Digital fittings - Part 2: Vocabulary and terminology used for attributes of the virtual human body.

[20]   A. Rudolf, S. Bogović, B. Rogina-Car, Z. Stjepanovič, S. Jevšnik, A. Cupar, "Virtual prototyping of special protective clothing for sport aircraft pilots", Book of abstracts, 12th Joint International Conference CLOTECH 2017 on Innovative materials & technologies in made-up textile articles, protective clothing and footwear, October 11th-14th, 2017, Lodz, Poland. Lodz, Poland: Lodz University of Technology, 2017, pp.84-96.

[21]   M. Nakić and S. Bogović, "Computational Design of Functional Clothing for Disabled People", Scientifi c Review, Tekstilec 1/2019, 2019, pp. 23-33.

[22]   Vitronic. Vitus Bodyscan. Available: [Accessed: Feb. 14, 2019].

[23]   W. Aldrich, Metic pattern cutting for women’s wear. 5th Edition. Blackwell Publishing, 2008, 218 p.

ERDF co-funded project "Funding of international projects in research and innovation at Rezekne Academy of Technologies" No.